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consumer behavior in the fashion industry

Influence of culture on consumer behavior in the fashion industry II  clothing behavior

The latest campaign from Ashley Graham's ongoing partnership with Swimsuits for All is here and it co-stars the woman who taught the model body positivity first: her mother.

Taking mother-daughter dressing to new heights, Ashley and her mom Linda Graham appear alongside one another wearing bikinis, one-pieces, and cover-ups from the swim brand's latest limited-edition capsule with Graham. The body positive campaign starring the mom and daughter duo was shot on location in Morocco and is aptly titled "Power of the Journey."

Abstract

Wearing clothes is one of the main factors that differentiate us from animals. Human beings began wearing clothes more than 170,000 years ago after the second-to-the-last-ice age. The historical invention of weaving machine changed the way fabrics were made and thus our garments; from being tailor made to being mass-produced. We may now dress differently depending on the time, the occasions, the environment, as well as based on culture.

People all over the world can make different choices based on different preferences. Consumers buy the items with which they feel familiar and comfortable. An individual’s preferences and level of comfort is derived through the inherent things that guide him or her to make decisions in a particular direction while they make decisions. The culture in which a person was raised represents a major influence in the preference for one’s clothing. In the last decade, the world business environment is experiencing drastic changes by moving the clothing industry from mass marketing into an era of mass customization.

Differentiated products aimed at specific segments have become a necessary marketing strategy in an industry characterized by fierce competition to see who can please the customers the best. Historically, most purchasing of clothes was perhaps planned as economic resources were scarce. However, it seems that we now see a growing number of customers buying clothing on impulse i.e. an unplanned purchase. This is a new challenge for the clothing industry.

Consumer behavior in the fashion industry

What: The purpose of the current study is, to investigate impulse buying behavior of clothes by young women from Norway and Sri Lanka; two very different cultures.

Why: Most of the past research studies have focused on western countries, and very few of Asian countries. None of the research study can find regarding the Sri Lankan context. Therefore it is interesting to conduct a study focused on the Sri Lankan context.

How: Hopefully this study will be helpful for the retailers and marketing managers to understand the impulse buying behavior in the context and thereby set up adequate strategies to implement impulse purchase

Using a quantitative approach, the study was conducted with a sample of 150 undergraduates representing both countries. A self- administered questionnaire was used to test five variables influencing impulse buying behavior. The results indicated that , availability of time and in-store promotion had no any significant relationship on impulse buying while influence from reference groups, shopping emotion and availability of money for shopping trips significantly impact on impulse buying.

This study examines the effectiveness of different fashion marketing strategies and consumer behavior analysis in a cross-section of demographic environments in reference to the retail sale of fashion garments. The study examines the determinants of consumer behavior and its impact on the purchase intentions of fashion clothes in reference to the brand image, promotions and knowledge of the external market. The study constructs were measured using reflective indicators that show effects on cognitive, economic and product-related variables. All variables were chosen following a focus group analysis of the potential respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis, scale reliability and regression method were used to analyze the data. Data were collected from 217 respondents within the age group of 18 to 45 years in reference to 35 variables in 11 fashion clothing brands in Mexico. The results reveal that socio-cultural and personality-related factors induce purchase intentions among consumers. One of the contributions extended by this research is the debate on the convergence of economic, cognitive and brand-related factors to induce purchase intentions. Fashion-loving consumers often sponsor multi-channel retail outlets and designer brands and invest time and cost in a search for advantageous products. The results of the study show a positive effect of the preferences of the store and the brand in the development of the intentions of buying fashionable clothes among the consumers.

Abstract

Globalization has catalyzed the growth of the fashion industry, and market attractions have significantly boosted the cultural attributes of consumers in various segments of consumers. A change in cultural values, consumer preferences and buying intentions towards fashion products is the most critical problem facing marketing managers today. Many researchers argue that increasing globalization is reducing the homogeneity of consumer behaviors within countries, while increasing communities in all countries.1 Most companies that manufacture fashion clothes are trying to save intercultural differences and build a cultural tune between consumer segments in a variety of contexts that stimulate interest. In fashion clothes. Companies use the customer-centric market strategy developed on consumer self-esteem attributes to improve purchase intentions towards fashion clothes.2

Powerful market stimulants, such as fashion shows on television, fashion advertisements, store displays and fashion events in urban shopping centers have influenced transnational cosmopolitanism among consumers. These interactive fashion apparel marketing strategies have demonstrated the convergence of traditional and modern values and lifestyles to develop a homogeneous global consumer culture. The conventional method of using social icons as cultural drivers has now been replaced by global fashion players with emblematic brands as the basis for product position and market segmentation. It is found that multichannel construction and brand differentiation systems influence consumers towards fashion apparel, and the need is created locally in support of cultural industries and is constituted by them. A good example is the Italian city of Milan, which has become a destination brand, where several channels are being negotiated and integrate fashion service strategies and brand design.

Globalization and growing competition, and the short product life cycles in fashion retail, cultivate asymmetric consumer behavior and pose a series of marketing challenges for retail companies in Mexico. To survive in this industry, it is vital that manufacturers and retailers develop and take advantage of basic marketing capabilities. This study examines the effectiveness of different fashion marketing strategies and consumer behavior analysis in a cross-section of demographic environments in reference to the retail sale of fashion garments. The article also analyzes the marketing competencies of brands and retailers of fashion clothes in reference to the brand image, promotions and knowledge of the external market. The study examines the determinants of consumer behavior and its impact on buying intentions towards fashion clothes.

It has been observed that the fashion clothing market has been greatly influenced by fashion trends in the United States. The North American Free Trade Agreement has further supported the fashion industry in Mexico, as imports of textile and clothing products from the United States have increased since 1994 due to trade liberalization policies. It is likely that US manufacturers and retailers. UU. Adopt a diversified risk-adjusted supply strategy that balances the cost and speed of exit to the market, as well as political and economic stability. Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean could be attractive options for American companies in some fashion-sensitive industry segments where rapid response or rapid change is important. The main clothing retailers in Mexico integrate industrial capacities such as textile supply, design and product brand, and their relationships with consumers allow them to keep abreast of fashion consumption trends. 

Fashion Designer work

The fashion clothing consumer market has become more diverse through fashion brands, store brands, personalization, advertising and ethnicity in the global market. If fashion clothing manufacturers and retailers can identify the preferences of the target consumers, they may be better able to attract and maintain their target consumer group. However, little research has been done to investigate the factors that influence clothing buying behaviors among Hispanic consumers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the attributes of fashion clothing purchases among consumers in Mexico. Although the topic of research on purchase intentions has been widely covered in the literature, this study contributes to the store's brand perspectives to boost purchase intentions with a dichotomy of value and lifestyle, and sensitivity to price of brands among consumers in Mexico.

In this article, two theoretical frameworks have been applied: the theory of optimal distinction and the theory of social impact. The theory of optimal distinction demonstrates that individuals prefer to join groups, teams or groups with particular properties. In particular, individuals need to meet two competing needs: the need to belong or assimilate and the need to feel different and unique. The theory of social impact demonstrates that social impact is the result of social forces, including the strength of the source of the impact, the immediacy of the event and the amount of sources that exert the impact. The theory emphasizes that the amount of impact tends to increase as the number of sources increases.


According to the theory of optimal distinction, individuals strive to maintain a balance between the need to be assimilated by their peers and family, and the need for autonomy and differentiation. The intention to buy fashion and fashion clothes is stimulated among consumers in social contexts. The distinctive character of fashion features (for example, fashion brand, celebrity sponsorship, media criticism) that are constantly associated with emotional expressions plays the most important role in buying behavior among consumers. Some studies suggest that a person's perception of their personality is a distinctive and prominent feature that differentiates behavior. People who have a high social position and adapt to the change in lifestyle are driven by fashion shows. Distinctive character theory supports the notion that ethnicity can influence consumer responses to various marketing stimuli, such as sales promotions and advertisements.


One of the main drivers of consumer behavior towards fashion clothing is the predominance of social interactions. The participation of consumers in fashion products depends not only on their own perceptions but also on the response of colleagues to their personality and propensity for change.11 Consumers perceive the relationship between clothing and identity from the perspective of their values generated in various social interactions. Consumers are involved in exhibiting fashion and lifestyle as an aesthetic way of presenting their personality. Therefore, clothing is often considered as an opportunity to communicate a new order of identity of a person. In this process, there are cognitive and affective incentives that translate into potential welfare gains (or indifference) for the consumer in a given social and work environment.

Some researchers have observed that cultural values affect the purchase intentions of fashion clothes. In societies that exhibit hedonic values, manufacturers and retailers promote fashion apparel to induce sudden, compelling and socially complex buying behavior through promotional programs that increase disposable income by facilitating credit to consumers.13 Manufacturers and retailers apply push and pull strategies to make fashion clothing promotions effective and advantageous for consumers. Promotions aimed at end consumers, known as pull promotions, directly offer extra value to consumers with the main objective of attracting consumers to retail stores and stimulating immediate sales. Although the push and pull promotions are designed to accelerate the sales process and increase sales at least in the short term, its strategic implications, as well as its impacts on fashion sales and profits, are believed to be different. Such a culture of fashion-driven retail sales stimulates fashion-oriented attitudes, debt and clothing spending behavior among consumers.

Fashion brands and department stores have redefined retail fashion clothing strategies in Mexico taking into account global and local purchasing preferences. The central and northern regions of Mexico have witnessed an increase in specialized clothing stores, which imposes new demands on manufacturers, wholesalers and consumers.15 It has been observed that the attributes that determine the general acceptance of clothing and accessories Fashionable among Mexican consumers are significantly influenced by product appeal and price sensitivity. Purchase intentions are influenced by the overall appearance, brand appeal and general taste. Fashion clothes are penetrating heavily in Mexico through the cross-border influence of the (American) consumer. Street vendors literally make an additional effort to obtain a better quality and variety of products, a higher quality of personal service, a more pleasant shopping environment and more competitive prices.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES FRAMEWORK

Changes in consumer fashion culture.

The practice of traditional dress is often aligned with the generic preferences of ethnic clothing. Therefore, the modern fashion clothing market has been built on the premise that ethnic clothing is firmly positioned in the heart of a traditional culture whose beautiful fabrics have been improved as practical clothing. This finding is supported by the work that uses the social value and lifestyle system (VALS), which segments the consumer market based on personality traits that drive consumer behavior.


Fashion clothing has built an image in the market by positioning designs aimed at the most 'passionate' male and female buyers as erotically charged.19 It is argued that changes in consumer culture provide a stimulus for dynamic innovation in the field of taste and personal consumption. . Such dynamism in consumer preferences is considered part of an international cultural system and is driven by a continuous change in VALS. Consumers' values, such as functionality, fitness for purpose and efficiency, contribute significantly to promoting cultural change and recognizing appropriate fashion to strategically adapt to lifestyles.20 The growing sale of clothing Technology-driven is one of the main stimulants to induce change in fashion and consumer culture. The custom-made automatic three-dimensional scheme for apparel products, demonstrated through computer simulation in large department stores and lifestyle centers, plays an important role in generating excitement towards fashion apparel. Clothing designers, manufacturers and retailers adopt a free-form design platform to represent the complex geometric models of clothing products. Clothing products are essentially designed with reference to the characteristics of the human body and, therefore, share a common set of characteristics such as the human model. Therefore, this modeling based on parametric characteristics allows the automatic generation of garments adjusted for different body shapes. Consumers are inclined towards the purchase of garments that are mainly sold as fashion garments.21 Therefore, the following hypothesis can be formed:


Hypothesis 1 (H1):

• The consumer culture in fashion apparel is influenced by lifestyle and value simulations when acquiring product experience.

Retailers have adopted customization to successfully market a wide range of fashion products, such as glasses, bicycles, coffee, greeting cards and clothing. The intention to buy fashion products differs between cultures. The customer's preference and the value given to fashion clothes is greatly influenced by the social differentiation of products and the consumer's self-esteem.22 Clothes are often worn for their symbolic value that reflects personality and User status When clothing has a fashion brand, it can be perceived as a display of wealth. Therefore, consumers are motivated by the desire to impress others with their ability to pay particularly high prices for prestigious products.23 These personality dimensions often play a critical role in shifting consumer culture toward consumer behavior. Purchase of utilitarian goods led by the brand. Consumers perceive fashion clothing brands as prestigious brands that encompass various physical and psychological values, such as perceived visible value, perceived unique value, perceived social value, perceived hedonic value and perceived quality value.24 Employers of consumption are governed to a large extent by the social value of the product, which determines the purchase intentions, attitudes or perceptions of consumers about the brand or the advertising slogan. The consumer's experience with perceptions of high socioeconomic power creates qualitatively different psychological reasons to buy fashionable clothes that develop unique consumption patterns.25 Therefore, the following hypothesis can be established:


Hypothesis 2 (H2):

• The personalization of fashion clothes stimulates self-esteem among consumers and improves social values.

Clothing designers have a significant impact on the success or failure of clothing and fashion accessories. It has been observed that demographic factors (for example, gender and generational cohort) and psychographic factors (for example, fashion freaks, attitudes and impulsive purchases) influence the frequency and spending levels in the purchase of fashion clothes. The buying trend of consumers is greater than that of male consumers, which significantly boosts their spending on fashion clothes. Such behavior is also driven by the fondness for fashion. The younger generation in the current context has a higher frequency of buying, fanaticism of fashion and impulse buying compared to other cohorts in society.26 The pleasure of buying consumers to differentiate themselves from other consumers has also been a strong Behavior engine for fashion garment manufacturers. Fashion apparel consumers have shown a favorable attitude towards exotic apparel products and a greater intention to buy. It has been observed that consumers who are inclined to buy fashionable clothes show higher cognitive motivations and a shopping orientation different from that of their followers. Major buyers enjoy shopping more and are not as cost-conscious, traditional or conservative as followers.

The cultural change in the purchase of clothes from low-priced brands to fashion brands in emerging markets has been institutionalized in a family environment. It has been observed that the influences of parents and siblings decrease with age, while the influences of peers and the media increase with age. Television and celebrities also play an important role in the influence of teenagers' clothing choices, regardless of gender. Two of the most common forms of media that children use to a large extent are magazines and television, while teenagers are mainly influenced by visual marketing, practical experience and the detection of users of fashion clothes.

Consumer buying behavior is also influenced by the attributes of social cognitive theory that explain how variables such as self-regulation and direct self-efficacy spending behavior and determine consumer lifestyles. Product attributes influence consumers' perceptions of the personal relevance of a product or service to their needs. Consumer preferences for product attributes are significantly related to their lifestyle. Lifestyle theory suggests that the hedonic attributes perceived by urban consumers and social identity factors determine their purchasing behavior. The buying behavior of consumers is driven by social, economic and relationship factors. The shopping environment, advertisements and retail promotions develop a favorable behavior towards purchases. Social learning theory explains this phenomenon as a positive reinforcement, and occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the conceptual foundations of social learning theory, the conditioning of respondents and learning by observation are empirical approaches to understand normative human development and the etiology of psychosocial problems. Consequently, the following hypothesis can be constructed:


Hypothesis 3 (H3):

• Family and external lifestyle and values drive consumer culture in fashion and apparel brands.

Store Brand Response

Department stores and lifestyle centers develop their clothing store brands to generate loyalty among consumers. Store brands are displayed in these stores along with fashion clothing brands. The changing dynamics of the fashion industry has forced retailers to target low-cost marketing strategies and design flexibility, and improve market penetration speed to gain a competitive advantage. The concept of "discarding" or fast fashion emerged in 1990 in the global market, which describes that fast fashion derives from manufacturers to retailers and consumers. Store brands have emerged rapidly in the fashion market due to the rapid growth of fashion.

The store's fashion brands are designed and developed taking into account the perceptions of consumers about the store's image. The satisfaction of buying fashion clothes includes the perceptions of consumers about the attributes of the store, as well as subjective evaluations of the products purchased in the store by the consumers themselves or by their fellow buyers. The impact of the store brand is also largely derived from word of mouth interaction. However, the response to store brands seems to be more complex in nature than a simple affective summary of the relative frequencies of positive and negative emotions during consumption experiences. Another factor that affects the consumer's decision about brands of the store is the recognition of the role of the store. Sales staff in a retail environment. It has been observed that effective sellers not only influence the purchase process but can also influence consumers to change the sponsorship of their store. Consumers can leave a store brand to follow specific sales and service personnel to a new store brand.34 Retail stores play an important role in influencing consumers for both store and store brands. maker. The attitude towards the promoted brands is characterized by the positive image of the store, the self-perception of the intelligent buyer, the need for affiliation and the attitude towards money regarding the prestige of power and anxiety. However, the attitude of consumers towards store brands is determined by a more positive image of the store, the price advantage, the range of products to exercise purchase options and factors related to loyalty and trust. .

In view of the previous discussion, the following hypothesis can be framed:


Hypothesis 4 (H4):

• Consumers develop loyalty for the fashion clothes of the store brand taking into account the image of the store and informal communication between other buyers.

There is a growing tendency to carry store brands in a retail apparel segment with increasing importance in terms of market share. There are reports that store brand sales represent approximately one fifth of the total sales volume in the United States. Manufacturers make their brands available in various stores and, as such, do not affect loyalty to a particular store. On the contrary, it is believed that fashion and clothing brands themselves possess the power to increase loyalty in reference to the store with which they are associated. Therefore, the brand name influences the general perceptions of consumer quality on the product.36 The success of the store's brand category depends, in analogy with the theory of brand extension, on the perceived quality of the parent brand (i.e. the store) and the fit between the main brand and the sub-brand category. It is considered essential that the store image, associated with the parent brand, somehow supports the product category with the store brand and mitigates the perceived risk of buying the category.

Some studies have observed that store brands generate a positive relationship between familiarity and customer loyalty with the retailer's own brand, and customer loyalty to the retailer results from the competitive advantage of the store brand. Although consumers' purchase intentions towards store brands are positively related to greater loyalty to the retailer, the scope of such relationship reduces consumer preferences due to the degree of exclusivity of store brands within the store. Customer's shopping basket.38 Consumers often realize that always The gap between store brands and manufacturer's brands in fashion clothing is reduced with respect to quality, perceived value and trust, The price finally becomes the only clearly distinctive feature. Consumer decisions about the purchase of fashion clothes are also largely governed by the price sensitivity factor. In this situation, retailers have the opportunity to use store brands in the process of 'marking' the store's formula.39 Fashion clothing store brands in a large number of markets have been favored by a set of factors that include actions of manufacturers and distributors in price and differentiation, competition in the market both at the manufacturer and retail level, and the economic-financial results of the latter for the categories of products in which they work with the brands from the store (for example, OubiƱa et al). Therefore, the following hypothesis can be structured as:


Hypothesis 5 (H5):

• The relatively low prices, the range of designs and the image of the store motivate consumers to choose the brands of the store to buy fashionable clothes.

Purchase Intentions

Fashion clothes have a short product shelf life and are greatly influenced by celebrity promotions, visual marketing and the store's environment. Multichannel systems for creating and differentiating brands at regional and local levels, backed by cultural forums in local markets, boost consumer buying intentions. In addition to retail stores, industrial actors based on fashion and design also contribute to creating images and myths that support the orientation of consumers towards the purchase of fashionable clothing.3 Purchasing intentions of clothing consumers Trendy are influenced by psychodynamic and social factors. The perceptions of consumers about the purchase of fashion clothes are based on five factors: perceptual leadership and perceived behavior patterns in society, coincidence of clothing with employment and the work environment, socialization with colleagues and people they like, self-esteem and fun, and respectful treatment in society.

Fashion magazines have become an emblem of feminism, a form of 'third wave' feminist engagement that revaluates the activities and interests traditionally associated with femininity, such as knitting, fashion clothing and makeup.42 Fashion magazines are the perfect medium to influence fashion adaptation. within the broadest thesis of global local effects. These magazines, together with the fashion television programs, influence consumers on the process of fashion adaptation, which begins with the conceptualization of the product and self-esteem in society.43 As women's buying behavior is very different from For men, it is essential that companies that target consumers make a change in marketing strategies and include factors other than socio-cultural characteristics. Consumers involved in fashion are considered as drivers and legitimists of the fashion adoption process.44 Considering the studies discussed above, the following hypothesis can be developed:


Hypothesis 6 (H6):

• The intention to buy fashionable clothes is greatly influenced by socio-cultural movements and media programs that drive participation with products and the message.

Celebrity-based promotions have become very popular to boost fashion clothes in the market and include celebrity-owned brands and celebrity-anchored brands. Fashion clothes, accessories and perfumes can be cited as the best examples of celebrity participation in product promotion. The relationship between fashion performance and celebrity ads in the media seems to be a sensitive promotional effort by manufacturers. However, said promotion strategy has a strong influence on the activation of excitement and purchase intentions among consumers. Celebrity's popular appeal boosts fashion clothing sales significantly and leads the brand.45 A study shows that consumer attitudes toward a promoted product are governed by the popularity and image of the celebrity, and expressions of the message. Consequently, consumer purchase intentions are driven by product attributes, price and endorsement performance as perceived by consumers. Celebrity support can significantly influence consumer buying attitudes through direct and indirect effects through the construction of the product attribute.46 As the fashion cycle is reduced due to growing competition , manufacturers promote their brands through countless agents, including celebrities. In the past, fashion used to be a highly centralized industry where new trends spread from a single location. The collections of Paris presented by a small network of dressmakers became the trends that everyone imitated. However, this process has been decentralized, and now fashion originates from many sources and is deeply influenced by popular culture, celebrities and consumers themselves, who, in many cases, inspire designers in the development of their collections. .47 Some studies revealed that commercials that celebrities use increased the likelihood of consumers buying the advertised brand.48 Therefore,

Hypothesis 7 (H7):

• Celebrity fashion clothing promotions provide a significant boost to purchase intentions, as consumers are eager to emulate celebrities.

Consumer research has shown that celebrity endorsements can improve the memory of advertising messages, increase brand recognition and make ads more credible and influential. A neuro-imaging study supported the hypothesis that celebrity support positively impacts consumers. A single exposure to an expert celebrity with a product can have a lasting positive effect on the memory and intention of buying the product.49 The purpose of decent clothing is primarily self-esteem and fashion for women of all ages. Therefore, investment in fashion clothes is largely related to the importance of self-evaluation, while the importance of motivation generates excitement and enjoyment of clothing during the post-purchase period.

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